How does Airbnb use the co-created with customers content in their digital marketing?

Introduction: Through co-creation, companies can access the depth of customer capabilities, knowledge and assets. And furthermore, revenues and profits are shared – together Airbnb and its “hosts” have built a company that was most recently valued at more than $25 billion.  Continue reading “How does Airbnb use the co-created with customers content in their digital marketing?”

Customer behaviour

Content:

  • Internal Determinants
  • External Determinants

Production, product and selling orientation/ concepts state that companies 
 “Make what company want/can =>(and then) “Try to make customers to buy”
Marketing Orientation/ Concept states that companies “Know what customers want/ may want => (then) “Make it” => (and then) “Tell customers”. 

Marketing concept – understanding customer needs and wants.

Consumer behaviour is a set of activities from the moment of a need to the moment of the purchase/use/repurchase including the internal and external factors. 


The purpose of customer behaviour analysis:

  • Consumption structure to design marketing strategies
  • Identifying needs
  • Improving communication
  • Obtaining trust and loyalty
  • Evaluating decisions taken

CUSTOMER BEHAVIOUR: INTERNAL DETERMINANTS

The individual or internal determinant are:

  • needs–> 
motivations –> wants/desires,
  • perceptions- attitudes – experience,

  • personal features (demography, socioeconomic, psychographic).

Needs, Motivations, Wants

Needs

A need is require (something) because it is essential or very important rather than just desirable.
Pyramid of Maslow
, also known as Maslow’s hierarchy of needs

Pyramid of Maslow
Pyramid of Maslow

!!! However, it is restricted to western culture. Pyramid of Maslow Asian version. 

pyramid of Maslow Asian countries
pyramid of Maslow Asian countries

Motivation

A need, in order to be recognized, requires motivation. Motivation can be:

  • Physiological / Psychological (biological needs – like hunger/ emotional – like friendship)
  • Primary / Selective (for ex., primary you get hunger, and then you choose what to eat, pizza or salad)
  • Rational / Emotional
  • Conscious / Unconscious (aware / not aware)
  • Positive / Negative (problem removal / benefits)
Color psychology
Color psychology

Wants/ Desires

Wants are the needs with a proper name.

We seldon need what we want. And, we alsways want more, then we need.

Perception – Attitude – Experience

Perception

Perception is a selection, organising and integration information into a significant and coherent image.

Attitudes

Attitudes are favourable or unfavourable responds to the object. They can be:

  • Believes (cognitive)

  • Value (emotional/affective)
  • Tendency to act (behavioural)
Example Attitudes
Example Attitudes

Experience

Experience is acquired through learning and leads to knowledge.
Previous experience with the Brand (positive/negative) shapes the attitude when choosing the brands.

Experience and learning
Experience and learning

Personal Characteristics

  • Demographic and socioeconomic – objective variables (ex., marital status, place of residence, occupation, income, education)
  • Psychographic – subjective variables (ex. Personality and lifestyle)

Personal characteristics
Personal characteristics

Customer behaviour: External determinants

CUSTOMER BEHAVIOUR: EXTERNAL DETERMINANTS Customer behaviour: External determinants

  • Macro:
    • PESTEL
  • Micro:
    • Social class
    • Social group
    • Family
    • Personal influencers
    • Culture

Social Groups

Social groups external influence
Social groups external influence
  • Social groups have information, comparative and normative influence on customer.

Customer already belongs to:

  • Primary- frequent relationships (ex., family, friends)
  • Secondary – less frequent (class, sport team)
  • Formal (ex.Workmates)
  • Informal (ex. Union prof. organization)
  • Customer aspires to belong to (es. Subordinated and manager)

Family

Family external influence

  • The initiator 
  • Receiver
  • Influencer – can be grandparents
  • Decider – the person(s) who makes a final decision weather to make a purchase or not 
  • Buyer – parents
  • User – would be more probably children

Family external influence

Family influence
Family influence

Personal influencers

  • Opinion leaders or experts
Influencers
Influencers
  • Influencers’ image should match with brand values
Influencer's image should match with the company's values
Influencer’s image should match with the company’s values

 

Culture

  • Geography (for ex., cars with airconditioning in hot climate, and with seet heating in cold)
  • Religion 
  • Subcultures
  • Etc.

Demand

Based on the internal and external determinads the demand is forming. Demand is the quantity of a good that consumers are willing and able to purchase at various prices during a given period of time. (Wikipedia)

For example,

My internal determinats: I need to sense a connection, I have an emotional motivation to communicate with my friends, I want a mobile phone. External determindats: my family income is above the average, and, all my friends have iPhone, but my previous experiece with iPhone was not that good. So, I would demand a Samsung. 

Defender and Prospector strategy and HRM practices

Theoretical background

GoogleProspectors emphasize growth and innovation, development of new products, and an eagerness to be the first in new-product or market areas, even if some of these efforts fail. The prospectors are more flexible and decentralized organizational structures, complex products (innovative), and unstable environments that change rapidly.

Defenders are conservative business units that prefer to maintain a secure position in relatively stable product or service areas instead of looking to expand into uncharted territory. Defenders tend to be highly formalized, emphasize cost control, and operate in a stable environment.

The concept of the strategic role of HRM management 

The concept of company’s Strategic priority

Example. 

  • Company: Google. 
  • Strategic relevance: innovation
  • Strategic relevant employees: thinking out-of-the-box, creative
  • Company’s strategy: Prospector because “Layoffs” are easy and no preferential treatment is applied to the laid-off workers, employees as resource and high level of internal competition.
  •  
  • Company: Four Seasons. 
  • Strategic relevance: customer experience
  • Strategic relevant employees: talented, passionated.
  • Company’s strategy: Defender because avoiding “Layoffs” and have continuing concern for terminated employees, each employee is valuable for the organization. 

 

 

Notes.

GoogleProspectors emphasize growth and innovation, development of new products, and an eagerness to be the first in new-product or market areas, even if some of these efforts fail. The prospectors are more flexible and decentralized organizational structures, complex products (innovative), and unstable environments that change rapidly.

Defenders are conservative business units that prefer to maintain a secure position in relatively stable product or service areas instead of looking to expand into uncharted territory. Defenders tend to be highly formalized, emphasize cost control, and operate in a stable environment.

Content:

in purple  – evaluation questions for the final presentation

Follow the concept of the strategic role of HRM management 

 Include:

  1. Company’s title.
  2. Company’s strategic priority. Brief description of the company’s purpose/mission.
  • What is the strategic priority of the company? 

3. Strategic Relevant employees. The main skills/ knowledges/ competences. 

    • What is the profile of the target employee which will fit with the company’s strategic priority?
    • Does the company have a lot of relevant talents available in the market?  

4. Company’s strategy.  Defender or Prospector.

      •  From the perspective of HRM policies, Why does the company selected can be considered as Prospector/ Defender?  base the answer in Figure 1.4 below

Example. 

  • Company: Google. 
  • Strategic relevance: innovation
  • Strategic relevant employees: thinking out-of-the-box, creative
  • Company’s strategy: Prospector because “Layoffs” are easy and no preferential treatment is applied to the laid-off workers, employees as resource and high level of internal competition.
  •  
  • Company: Four Seasons. 
  • Strategic relevance: customer experience
  • Strategic relevant employees: talented, passionated.
  • Company’s strategy: Defender because avoiding “Layoffs” and have continuing concern for terminated employees, each employee is valuable for the organization. 

Evaluation: 

No grades. Just: ★★★Excellent: Sent in time, following the requirements and including all the content. 
★★Good: Send with the delay 1 day, some requirements or content parts are missing. 
★Pass: Send late, not following requirements or missing the content parts.