- Workflows Analysis
- Organizational structure
- Job analysis
- Job design
1. WorkFlows Analysis
Work: the organizational perspective
Work activity involving mental or physical effort done to achieve a result. It is a range of task (s) to be undertaken.
The workplace is a physical location where someone works. Such a place can range from a home office, a large office building or factory, to an out of office environment.
Value creation process: the business perspective
Value creation is any process that creates outputs that are more valuable than its inputs.
In business management: value creation process is the work specialization into functions, from R&D to after-sales service, towards efficiency (reducing costs) and customer satisfaction (improves value).
See the example of Ford’s Assembly line -> https://youtu.be/qFbsDArAWj8
A work-flow analysis is a process of examining how work creates or adds value to the ongoing processes in a business.
The work-flow analysis looks at how work moves:
- from the customer demand (the need for work)
- through the organization (value-creating steps, employees)
- to the point at which the work leaves the organization as a product or service.
2. Organizational structure
Organizational structure Concepts:
- ● Entry Level
- ● Career/Mobility Path
- ● Report to/Order to
- ● Team
- ● Span of control
- ● Levels in Hierarchy
See more definitions in video >>> https://youtu.be/wO_-MtWejRM
3. Job analysis
A JOB is a unit in the organizational structure which consists of a group of defined POSITIONS with the specific tasks or activities to be carried out or duties to be performed and contain several levels of responsibility.
- The task is a smaller distinct identifiable part of work.
- A duty is a part of work composed of tasks which employee liable to perform.
- Responsibility is a degree of liability. Obligation to perform certain task and duties within a specific time, circumstances, and/or place.
- Task: If Teacher tells you to throw papers into the dustbin.
- Duty: To keep class clean.
- Responsibility: To throw papers into dustbin even if no one request you or order you.
Job analysis is the process of collecting, analysing and setting out information about the content of the jobs. Job analysis produces the following information about a job:
- Overall purpose – why the job exists and, in essence, what the job holder is expected to contribute.
- Content – the nature and scope of the job in terms of the tasks and operations to be performed and duties to be carried out.
- Organization – to whom the job holder reports and who reports to the job holder.
See video for the comments https://youtu.be/qy09Ls6NqEo
Job analysis: PLAN and PREPARE
Aim: to provide the basis and data for
- a job description
- job evaluation
- performance management.
Job analysis concentrates on the works which job holders are expected to do.
Job analysis: CONDUCT
The sources of data about job content:
- obtain documents such as existing organization, procedure or training manuals which give information about the job;
- obtain from managers fundamental information concerning the job;
- obtain from jobholders similar information about their jobs.
Internal data collection techniques:
Job analysis: DOCUMENT
A job description is a written document that identifies, defines, and describes a job in terms of:
- its duties, task, responsibilities,
- working conditions, and specifications
Job descriptions structure should be based on the job analysis and should be as brief and factual as possible, including:
● Identification Information
- ○ Job title
- ○ Reporting to
- ○ Division or Department
- ○ Job summary and Overall purpose. (Work need to be done)
● Job tasks, duties and responsibilities (Job explanation)
- ○ Main activities to be done how and at which level
● Job Requirements (Previous Experience)
- ○ Knowledge
- ○ Ability
- ○ Experience
- ○ Skills
● Minimum Qualifications (Previous Education)
- ○ Certificates
- ○ Diplomas
Job analysis: UPDATE
Keep jobs current and available
Job design is the process of organizing work into the tasks required to perform a specific job, also related to:
- Number and variations of tasks (ex. Job simplification or enlargement)
- Working timetable (ex., flexible working hours)
- Workplace (ex. office or telecommuting)
- Keeping jobs up-to-date
NOTE! The working environment is changing. In a dynamic situation, it is important to keep jobs up-to-date with marketing and technology changes.
See example, What to expect and how to prepare? PwC’s Strategy& conducted an in-depth study in collaboration with the University of Aachen, looking into the future of the automotive environment. Mapping in detail how it is likely to change from now until 2030. Reverse mentoring, social skills, agility and teamwork are forward-looking words – watch this video to see how it all works together.
4. Job design
Job design aims to build the most efficient way of organizing tasks into work within the organizational structure to provide a better work-life balance to employees.
Work-life balance is the state of equilibrium in which demands of personal life, professional life, and family life are equal.
Job simplification is the process of removing tasks from existing roles to make them more focused. The objective of work simplification is to develop improved work methods that maximize output while minimizing expenditure and cost.
Job enlargement is an increase in job tasks and responsibilities to make a position more challenging. It is a horizontal expansion, which means that the tasks added are at the same level as those in the current position.
For example, it is used in small companies with low possibilities for promotion.
Job enrichment is a common motivational technique used by organizations to give an employee greater satisfaction in his work. It means giving an employee additional responsibilities previously reserved for his manager or other higher-ranking positions. For example, can be a stage of developing process and preparing the employee for further movement in the hierarchy.
Job rotation is the systematic movement of employees from one job to another within the organization to achieve various human resources objectives such as orienting new employees, training employees, enhancing career development and preventing job boredom or burnout.
● developing employees with a broad range of skills
● increasing job satisfaction
Job design decisions:
- Working hours:
- ○ Full -time employees
- ■ FTE – full-time equivalent (normally 8 hours)
- Part-time employees
- ■ O.5 FTE (normally 4 hours)
- ○ Full -time employees
- Time off
- Flexible Work Arrangements
- Type of workers
- core workers
- contingent workers (temporary or seasonal workers)
- Career flex
Flexible Work Schedules
- flexible work hours
- core time
Watch for more comments – Work Flexibility https://youtu.be/oOSTXUGWpg0
Example, What Google Employees have done during 20% of working hours dedicated to creativity and employee projects >>> Google Employees Creativity Cardboard https://youtu.be/6jhmS7Enpxs
Outsourcing (sometimes called subcontracting ) includes both foreign and domestic contracting,
sometimes includes offshoring (relocating a business function to a distant country) or nearshoring (transferring a business process to a nearby country).