Topic 2.4 – Training and Development



  1. Training vs.Development
  2. Training
  3. Development
  4. Careers

1. Training vs. Development    

Training and Development

Training  – The process of providing employees with specific skills or helping them to correct difficulties in their performance.

Development  – An effort to provide employees with the abilities the organization will need in the future.

2. Training

Training not always works. To get positive results the training process should be well organized. 

The challenges of the Training Process:

  • Training ProcessIdentify – Real Business Impact
    • How can training keep pace with a changing organizational environment and companies strategy at the same time?
  • Analyse –  Skill Gap
    • How to develop an adequate evaluation system?
    • How make it the training to be perceived positive?
  • Develop – Layer Training  
    • Should training take place in a classroom setting or on the job?
    • How to save on training costs?
  • Evaluate  – Managing effectiveness 
    • Is training always the solution to the problem?
    • How can training be delivered so that trainees are motivated to learn?

Stages of the training process:

training processThe NEEDS ASSESSMENT PHASE

training objectivesClarifying the Objectives of Training

The levels of needs assessment:

  • Organizational needs
    • Ex. how will training help to improve performance (number of sales)?
  • Task needs
    • Ex., the performance of which task will training help to improve (work with the software)?
  • Person needs
    • Ex. which personal skills will the training help to improve (communication skills)?   


types of trainingTypes of Training:

  •  Skills Training
  •  Retraining
  •  Cross-Functional Training
  •  Team Training
  •  Creativity Training
  •  Diversity Training
  •  Ethics Training
  •   Risk/Crisis Training


presentation options trainingPresentation Options:

  •  Slides and Videotapes
  •  Teletraining
  •  Computers
  •  Simulations
  •  Virtual Reality
  •  Classroom Instruction
  •  Role-Plays

Location options:

  • Off-the-job training
  • On-the-job training (OJT):
    • “pro” relevant to the job
    • “con” trainees cause customer frustration
    • For ex., Job rotation, Apprenticeships, Internships 

training location options



Four Measurement Levels of Training: 

four measurement levels of training


Training should always match with the company’s objective and environmental trends. However, it also should be developed in a way to bring positive perceptions to employees and match their needs. The correctly developed training process can add extra value to the company as an employer and can be perceived as a motivation among workers. Effective training will return on the investments by the positive impact on a company’s performance.

The company can save on training costs in different ways, for example, by using online training. Or, by applying the on-job-training format when the more experienced employees train less experienced ones. Employees should be trained. However, the decision about whether to train employees in the company “make skills” or to hire already trained specialists “buy skills” will depend on the company’s strategy.

Another training challenge for the company is retaining trained employees. In this situation, development programs and career opportunities can be a solution.

3. Development

Talent development is a process of succession planning which follows performance appraisal standards and is based on the competency model.

This process consists of several stages (identification, direction and development) and as the final step consider the growth in a career path in the organization. 

approach of talent development

Development Process:

development process



On this phase, development needs should be identified based on:

  • Self-assessment – when workers are initiators of the long-term development
  • Organizational Assessment – when the company identify future successors

people who develo there talent

development needs identification


On the direction stage, the potential talents are guided by the company by providing:

    • information services
    • individual career counselling

The interest in the development of each candidate starts to be more clear. On this stage, company can segment potential talents and decide the next degrees of further development or not.

performance potential grid


  • is based on the competency model and includes several measures:
    • COACHING – giving training (knowledge)
    • JOB ROTATION – giving responsibilities (experience)
    • MENTORING – giving an example (personality)
    • TUITION ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS – self-responsibility

Every measure in the development stage aims to develop various dimensions from the company’s competency model.

talent development measures

4. Careers

What is a career? Career is an individual’s metaphorical “journey” through learning, work and other aspects development in the workplace.

Career development is an ongoing and formalized effort that focuses on developing enriched and more capable workers and working space.

A career in the company with flat and hierarchical organizational structure. What will be the difference? – For companies with hierarchical structures management-career with the possibility to be promoted in the vertical of organization chart by getting more responsibilities. In flat organizations, very common expert-careers when an employee can develop the knowledge and expertise in the specific field. However, both career paths are possible and needed in any organization. Experts very often advice top-managers.

expert and management career


what matters development


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